Knee Arthritis |Knee Replacement Surgery
Are you looking for the best knee arthritis treatment in Hyderabad,consult the best knee arthritis specialist in Hyderabad.
The term Arthritis refers to a group of diseases that affect the joints and surrounding tissues. Primary symptoms of arthritis are pain, stiffness and swelling. Arthritis can affect any joint in the body but it most commonly occurs in the knee.
There is no cure for arthritis. However, it can be effectively management through various treatment options.
To understand knee arthritis treatment let us know the anatomy of knee arthritis:
The knee is made up of lower end of thighbone, upper portion of shinbone and the kneecap. A smooth, slippery substance known as the cartilage cushions and protects the ends of these bones making it easier to bend and straighten the knee. Meniscus, wedge shaped pieces of cartilage, act as shock-absorbers between the femur(thighbone) and tibia (shinbone). Synovial membrane, a thin lining that surrounds the knee joint, releases a fluid to lubricate the cartilage and reduces friction.
Major Types of Arthritis
In Osteoarthritis, the cartilage wears away and becomes rough and frayed. This leads to one bone rubbing on another causing severe pain. It generally occurs in people above 50 years and is described as the degenerative form of arthritis. Although more common in elderly people, it may occur in younger people as well.
In rheumatoid arthritis, a swelling occurs in synovial membrane causing severe pain and stiffness. It can attack multiple joints in the body.Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease in which the immune system damages it own tissues. This disease can be effectively managed with proper medication.
This is a form of arthritis that develops after injury. Arthritis may not manifest until a few years after the injury. Ligament injuries and meniscal tears may cause instability, which eventually results in arthritis.
• Severe pain that gets worse in the morning
• Joint stiffness and Inflammation
• Difficulty in bending/straightening the knee
• Clicking sound when patient tries to move the knee
• Increased pain during cold weather
Now that you got to know the symptoms then consult the best knee arthritis specialist in Hyderabad.
For the best physical examination consult the best doctor for knee arthritis treatment in Hyderabad.
During the examination, doctor will check for swelling or tenderness of the knee. The passive and active range of motion will also be examined. Doctor may also check for signs of any injury to muscles, tendons & ligaments surrounding the knee
• X Rays
• CT Scan
• Bone Scan
• Blood Tests
There are surgical and also non surgical procedures for knee arthritis treatment which are as follows:
• Assistive devices – such as cane or knee sleeve or shock absorbing shoes
• Applying heat or ice, elastic bandages can provide pain relief
• Alternative therapies such as acupuncture and magnetic pulse therapy can also help
• Arthroscopy may be recommended in cases where a patient is affected with osteoporosis as well as degenerative meniscal tear
• In Cartilage Grafting, healthy cartilage tissue is taken from another part of the knee to fill a hole in the articular cartilage
• Synovectomy a procedure in which the damaged joint lining is removed to reduce pain and swelling
• Osteotomy – in this procedure either the shinbone or thighbone is cut and reshaped to relieve pressure on the knee joint
• Total or partial knee replacement – in this procedure, the doctor replaces the damaged cartilage and bone with a metal or plastic surface to restore the knee’s function
Recovery and rehabilitation depends on the type of treatment chosen by the patient.
Your doctor may also recommend blood tests to determine which type of arthritis you have. With some types of arthritis, including rheumatoid arthritis, blood tests will help with a proper diagnosis.
There is no cure for arthritis but there are a number of treatments that may help relieve the pain and disability it can cause.
As with other arthritic conditions, initial treatment of arthritis of the knee is nonsurgical. Your doctor may recommend a range of treatment options.
Lifestyle modifications. Some changes in your daily life can protect your knee joint and slow the progress of arthritis.
• Minimize activities that aggravate the condition, such as climbing stairs.
• Switching from high impact activities (like jogging or tennis) to lower impact activities (like swimming or cycling) will put less stress on your knee.
• Losing weight can reduce stress on the knee joint, resulting in less pain and increased function.
Specific exercises can help increase range of motion and flexibility, as well as help strengthen the muscles in your leg.
Assistive devices. Using devices such as a cane, wearing shock-absorbing shoes or inserts, or wearing a brace or knee sleeve can be helpful.
Other remedies. Applying heat or ice, using pain-relieving ointments or creams, or wearing elastic bandages to provide support to the knee may provide some relief from pain.
Medications. Several types of drugs are useful in treating arthritis of the knee. Because people respond differently to medications, your doctor will work closely with you to determine the medications and dosages that are safe and effective for you.
• Paracetamol is the safest pain killer that one could take.
• Another type of pain reliever is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, or NSAID. The commonly used medications such as diclofenac, ibuprofen, aceclofenac and others fall under this category. NSAIDs abuse can cause ulcers in the oesophagus and stomach and also renal failure.
• Corticosteroids (also known as cortisone) are powerful anti-inflammatory agents that can be injected into the joint. These injections provide pain relief and reduce inflammation; however, the effects do not last indefinitely. Your doctor may recommend limiting the number of injections to three or four per year, per joint, due to possible side effects. In some cases, pain and swelling may “flare” immediately after the injection, and the potential exists for long-term joint damage or infection. With frequent repeated injections or injections over an extended period of time, joint damage can actually increase rather than decrease.
• Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are used to slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis. Drugs like methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine are commonly prescribed. In addition, biologic DMARDs like etanercept and adalimumab may reduce the body’s overactive immune response. Because there are many different drugs today for rheumatoid arthritis, a rheumatology specialist should manage medications, it is not an Orthopaedic surgeons job to prescribe them.
• Viscosupplementation involves injecting substances into the joint to improve the quality of the joint fluid. Though sounds very attractive, most of the evidence for such injections is sponsored by the industry hence the quality of evidence is questionable.
• Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, substances found naturally in joint cartilage, can be taken as dietary supplements. Although patient reports indicate that these supplements may relieve pain, there is no evidence to support the use of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate to decrease or reverse the progression of arthritis. In addition, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not test dietary supplements before they are sold to consumers. These compounds may cause side effects, as well as negative interactions with other medications.
• Alternative therapies. Many alternative forms of therapy are unproven but may be helpful to try, provided you find a qualified practitioner. Alternative therapies to treat pain include the use of acupuncture and magnetic pulse therapy.
Surgery is recommended if your pain from arthritis causes disability and is not relieved with nonsurgical treatment. As with all surgeries, there are some risks and possible complications with different knee procedures.
Arthroscopic surgery is not often used to treat arthritis of the knee. In cases where osteoarthritis is accompanied by a degenerative meniscal tear, arthroscopic surgery may be recommended to treat the torn meniscus.
Cartilage grafting. Normal, healthy cartilage tissue may be taken from another part of the knee or from a tissue bank to fill a hole in the articular cartilage. This procedure is typically considered only for younger patients who have small areas of cartilage damage.
Synovectomy. The joint lining damaged by rheumatoid arthritis is removed to reduce pain and swelling.
(Left) A partial knee replacement is an option when damage is limited to just one part of the knee. (Right) A total knee replacement prosthesis.
Osteotomy. In a knee osteotomy, either the tibia (shinbone) or femur (thighbone) is cut and then reshaped to relieve pressure on the knee joint. Knee osteotomy is used when you have early-stage osteoarthritis that has damaged just one side of the knee joint. By shifting your weight off the damaged side of the joint, an osteotomy can relieve pain and significantly improve function in your arthritic knee.
Total or partial knee replacement (arthroplasty). Your doctor will remove the damaged cartilage and bone, and then position new metal or plastic joint surfaces to restore the function of your knee.
After any type of surgery for arthritis of the knee, there is a period of recovery. Recovery time and rehabilitation depends upon the type of surgery performed.